20 mars 2018


How Is Your Phone Changing You?


Of the 7 billion people on earth, 6 billion own a cell phone, which is pretty shocking given that only 4.5 billion have access to a working toilet, so how are these popular gadgets changing your body and brain? If you’re looking down at your phone right now, your spine angle is the equivalent of that an 8 year-old child sitting on your neck, which is fairly significant considering people spend an average of 4.7 hours a day looking at their phone. This, combined with the length of time spent in front of computers has led to an increase of the prevalence of myopia or near-sightedness in North America. In the 1970s, about a quarter of the population had myopia, where today, nearly half do; and in some parts of Asia, 80 to 90% of the population is now near-sighted. It can be hard to put your phone down. Take for example the game “Candy Crush”. As you play the game, you achieve small goals, causing your brain to be rewarded with little bursts of dopamine and eventually you’re rewarded in the game with new content. This novelty also gives little bursts of dopamine, and together creates what is known as “compulsion loop” which just happens to be the same loop responsible for the behaviors associated with nicotine or cocaine. Our brains are hardwired to make this novelty-seeking and this is why apps on our phones are designed to constantly provide us with new content, making them hard to put down. As a result, 93% of young people aged 18-29 report using their smart phones as a tool to avoid boredom, as opposed to other activities like reading a book or engaging with people around them. 1.28

Re: Can newspapers survive the digital revolution?

I think that’s an open question. Our audience is clearly migrating, and pretty rapidly, from the print version to the internet version, I’m inclined to think that this is a transition period and not just a steadily accelerating decline. The Washington Post has had a smart strategy of building its website and building revenue on the website, so I think that we’re going to be able to survive. I think the biggest problem is our economic question mark; are people going to be willing to finance a kind of costly investment that it takes to produce quality journalism? That is labor intensive work. The two women who are at the Washington post who broke the story about the abuse of veterans at Walter Reed Hospital spent four months on that story. That’s very expensive to have two highly-trained professional reporters working for four months on one story. But that story produced an enormous change of policy and the question mark is whether people are willing to support that kind of investment. 1.34

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14 mars 2018


Rappel DS "Southern Justice / Power / The sheriff is a man of power" le 23/3.

Début entraînement CO.

Tahir Lee - Dr. Russell Anderson - African American Icons III

0.14 ==>1.47 

Dr R. A. was one of our early pioneers here in Leon County. Dr A overcame racial segregation by attaining an education. He received his degree in biological science in 1928 followed by a Masters in 1930 and his PhD in 1933. He came from the North, but once he migrated to Tallahassee, he opened the first medical clinic, one of the first medical clinics that were here in Tallahassee. In his autobiography, he talks about being the first African American to get a PhD from the Department of Science at the University of Pittsburg. A huge accomplishment. He was also one of the founders of the Florida A&M University Hospital and as such was the first medical director. In 1956, the hospital was the only public medical facility for blacks within 150 miles. By 1957, Dr Anderson founded the Anderson Brickler medical clinic with his son-in-law. He built the Anderson clinic on South Adams Street, which still stands today and the important thing about it is that his legacy is being continued by his son-in-law, his grandson and his granddaughter. During Dr A’s time at Florida A&M University Hospital, health facilities in Leon County were still segregated. We had TMH hospital but blacks could not go there, for services, nor could any black doctor practice at TMH.  93 seconds 


“Dr Daniel Hale Williams, the first black doctor “   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VZ0OzKig0aU

Dr Williams was the first person to successfully operate on the human heart. He is the father of black surgery. His medical innovation in heart surgery in 1893 paved the way for modern advances and techniques currently used by surgeons worldwide. However, in many modern medical history books, his name and his accomplishments are missing. Dr Williams succeeded in an era when many whites, and even some blacks, didn’t believe a hospital serving the needs of black people was needed. Against tremendous obstacles, his determination and talent established a foundation for quality black medical care to move forward on. For years, operations on the human heart were not performed by doctors because of the great risk to a person’s life. That was until 1893 when a black doctor made medical history by performing the first successful operation on the human heart. (…) 1.28 Daniel Williams was born January 18th, 1856 in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania. He was the fifth child of Sarah Price Williams and Daniel Williams Junior. His father was a barber and owned real-estate, which made it possible to provide his family a comfortable middle-class lifestyle.


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06 mars 2018


b)      His language.

Line 31, the expression “come here you” is disrespectful but more importantly, the word “you” suggests that the doctor doesn’t have a name or an identity, as if the sheriff used his power to say the doctor is nobody, that he has no identity, no name.

In the beginning, line 13, he calls the doctor “reverend”, at the time a lot of black men were reverends so for the sheriff all black men are reverends, so the idea is that if the sheriff decides that Dr Copeland is a reverend, , he becomes one. The same thing happens lines 19/20: if he says the judge is busy, then the judge is busy whereas other people, white people, are free to see him. Finally line 37, even if the sheriff is lying when he says that Dr Copeland has been drinking, it must be accepted as the truth just because he says it.

All things considered, the language of the sheriff is so powerful that whatever he says must be accepted as the truth.


c)      The physical violence of the sheriff is an instrument of his power.

As soon as Dr Copeland starts contradicting the sheriff, the latter strikes him in the face. It’s a way for him to impose his reality and to show his power. The doctor must feel powerless and helpless. He wants the doctor to understand / to learn that he must never contradict him / respond to him, that he must keep silent and obey. There is also the intention to humiliate the doctor and to make him feel inferior. The pain is both physical and moral. Moreover, the doctor is beaten up by three men, the humiliation is even bigger and more important, it shows the power of the white sheriff has no limits. If the doctor died the sheriff would walk away with it unpunished / without being punished.

DS LE VENDREDI 23 MARS, apprendre cours sur le sheriff, être capable de dire ce qui fait de lui un homme de pouvoir.

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06 février 2018


I)              The unlimited power of the sheriff.

a)                     His gestures, his face, his eyes.

When the Doctors asks him where the judge’s office is located, the sheriff “jerks his thumb”, it’s a symbol of authority and power because he gives him an order without speaking, a simple gesture is enough to dictate his will. The text says that the doctor recognizes the sheriff just with his face, not with a star or a hat or a uniform. His face is the face of a powerful man. (lines 6 & 10).

Later in the story, the sheriff “winks” at his friends to make fun of / to laugh at the doctor. He makes a link with his white colleagues, they form a group, and that’s what makes them stronger and more powerful, all the more so as the doctor is alone. It’s a little different when we read that the sheriff keeps “watching” the Doctor, as if he was controlling him. Moreover, the doctor is sitting whereas the sheriff is standing, it’s a position of inferiority for the doctor. All things considered, there are signs of power in the sheriff’s gestures, in his face, in his eyes and in his posture.

b)                    His language.

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26 janvier 2018


“Locations and forms of power”

Introduction: a two-minute summary of the history of Afro-Americans, and a fifty-word presentation of the text “Southern Justice”.

The USA declared their independence from England on July 4th 1776 (real, definitive independence was earned / won at the end of the American Revolution in 1783). But for Blacks, there wasn’t any freedom, any emancipation, they were enslaved before and after 1776. In 1863, president A. Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation which led to the liberation of about four million slaves. But about ten years after the abolition of slavery, segregation laws were voted in the South / the Southern states. Blacks/black people were free but equal. They had to wait until 1963 with MLK and his famous “I Have a Dream” speech, which forced President Johnson to abolish segregation in 1964/1965. For example, medicine was desegregated in 1964, in 1967 the first black man became member of the Supreme Court, and the Court decided to legalize marriage between blacks and whites.

In class, we studied the text “Southern Justice”. It’s about a black Doctor in the Southern states during segregation. His son has been jailed / imprisoned so he wants to see the judge. Unfortunately, the white sheriff doesn’t let him talk to the judge and at the end, the sheriff decides to beat up the doctor and to jail him.

I)  The unlimited power of the sheriff.

a)    His gestures, his face, his eyes. 


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23 janvier 2018



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16 janvier 2018


Life and Reign of Queen Elizabeth II:

0.20 Good morning again, Robin, she is a legendarily private woman, but over the years she has shown a remarkable ability to adapt, to show more emotion in public, when the country needs it, after Princess Diana’s death for example. We discovered that maybe because at heart, she is not as aloof as she seems. She is famously stoic and reserved, iconographic in her matching coats and hats, the epitome of absolute duty to country. But there’s another side to the 81 year-old monarch and grandmother, one the public rarely sees and it might surprise. She is very funny, she has got a very, very quick wit, and a dry sense of humor, and of course she’s a fantastic mimic. From the start in fact, she was a humor-filled child, here, the 10-year old princess just learned she would one day become queen; the smile is shy but the wave distinctly playful.  And from that point on, the public eye was trained on young Elizabeth who relished her close family life with long talks with her father King George VI. She became known for her beauty and her dancing, her spontaneous plays put on for friends and family and the freewheeling games at sea. Her life was quite carefree when she was a young princess in her teens, they would often go to private houses around Great Britain owned by aristocrat friends of theirs and party till the dawn, don’t be fooled into thinking the queen was leading a sort of boring existence. (1.50)

The Secret Diary of Queen Victoria... aged 13

(0.08) We know her as the great Queen; Victoria is the monarch who reigned the longest though her great, great granddaughter Elizabeth II is fast closing on that record. But Victoria wasn’t always a grand old lady. Her life as a young princess has even been made into a film, and now her earliest known diaries are being put on public display. It’s 1832, she is 13 years old and she’s traveling by horse and carriage through the industrial midlands it’s the first time she has seen anything like it and here the princess expresses her shock and awe. She writes “the grass is quite blasted and black, the country continues black, engines flaming, coals in abundance, everywhere smoking and burning.” Victoria wasn’t allowed to have friends, her paper dolls are relics of a lonely childhood. This new exhibition at Windsor Castle features other Kings and queens. Here is the signature of Elizabeth I in her accounts book, and we hear from Elizabeth II long before she is queen.  I love this one, it was written by the current queen when she was 11 year-old princess Elizabeth at the coronation of her father and it obviously went on a bit. In neat handwriting she remembers at the end, the service got rather boring…(1.39)

Rappel DS CE le 19/1 et annonce DS CO le 26/1.

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09 janvier 2018


DS Compréhension écrite le 19/1.

Queen Elizabeth II becomes longest reigning British monarch in history


(0.14) Queen Elizabeth II surpasses her great, great grandmother Queen Victoria to become the longest serving British monarch in history this week. The 89 year-old takes the crown on Wednesday reigning for 63 years and 217 days and it all began in the early 1950s. 1953, it was the year was introduced to Ian Fleming’s James Bond, the year Edmund Hilary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay conquered the Everest, and the year Elvis Presley made his first ever recording. In Britain, an estimated 3 million people lined the streets of London. World leaders, dignitaries and invited guests gathered at Westminster Abbey and millions of people around the world huddled around television sets; all to witness a momentous occasion for the British Empire. She was just 25 years old when she ascended to the throne in 1952 but she was not always destined to be Queen. Her father, George VI, became King after the abdication of his brother Edward VIII and when he died, his eldest daughter was next in line. The young queen quickly took to her new role with energy and grace and soon, she and her husband Prince Philip set off on a six-month world tour. She became the first monarch to circumnavigate the globe and in time also became the most widely traveled head of state in history. (1.48)

Life and Reign of Queen Elizabeth II. A réécouter avant correction complète en classe:

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28 décembre 2017



Queen Victoria was very popular during her reign, she was almost known everywhere. But here, we are going to focus on her personal life, particularly after the death of her husband Prince Albert (!!). Here the question is more about the attitude of Queen Victoria after her husband’s death, Was it heroic or not? After the death of The Prince, the Nation was worried and thought that the Queen might break down or might fall in deep depression. They feared that she might find it very difficult to overcome the tragedy or organize the country. A queen is very important for a country as she is the pillar of a whole nation. So for English people, the only question was: What is the future of the Kingdom now? We saw a short article written by historians saying that after his death, her only objective was to glorify him and to memorialize him for eternity by building monuments; it shows the love of the queen toward the King which gives an image of a faithful romantic hero. On the other hand, historians don’t insist on the fact that she was focused on glorifying her husband and didn’t care about politics. She concentrated on herself and her behavior can be considered as selfish so it was not at all heroic. History prefers to remember that the queen was considered as “a respected figure of enduring dignity and for fortitude” as she never married again and didn’t betray her late husband even after his death. She never asked for help to anyone to run the country. At the same time it’s normal because she was rich and many people were there to service her. Moreover, many women lose their husbands and they continue to live with their children so it’s not that important or that extraordinary. If it is heroic to survive the death of a family member with dignity, then there are many heroes in this world! Today there are more single mothers than married ones, maybe Victoria became an example not only in her time but still today. The Queen is an inspiration for all mothers as she gives the image of an independent and strong woman. The Queen managed her life between family and politics as she had an important authority and power among the society. Her heroism is partly true, partly exaggerated, like in every myth.

The document also tells us that Queen Victoria was considered as “Grandmamma of Europe” it gives the impression she was loved by everyone and known by all Europeans as a member of the family, it’s true because she had grandchildren in the royal families of Russia, Denmark, Spain…etc. Otherwise it’s an exaggeration because lots of people in Europe didn’t care about her and the expression “grandmamma of Europe” is a good example of how a myth is constructed.

Interestingly, people in England started calling themselves “Victorians” after the death of Prince Albert. Of course, the word means people who lived during her period but also people who admired her and who followed her leadership. It’s more than an exaggeration because it would mean they considered her reign as totally perfect. We saw 4 images in which we see a big difference between poor people and rich people. In the first 2 we can see the poverty; many people died of the cholera, of famine…etc and in the second one we see the opposite, opulence and wealth. It shows enormous social inequalities. We can argue that as Queen Victoria was concentrated on her late husband and not on England, social problems were the consequence of her lack of concern for the people; the thing that preoccupied her was her family and the power of England in the world. Maybe for the queen, it was a perfect period but for many it was a period of death and sickness. Many history books describe social inequalities, but not so many explain that the Queen might be responsible; they prefer remembering her as “the Great Queen”.

Joscheba, with Gabriel, Amir & Lola.

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12 décembre 2017


Victoria, Part 2, consignes complémentaires.

document 4.

Problématique = Victoria's heroism after her husband's death: myth or reality?

1) Introduce the pb by interpreting the question of the nation: "how will the queen bear it"?

2) Focus on "the only thing that interested Victoria was to memorialize her husband in perpetuity". How heroic is it for a queen to do that? (find contrasted answers)

3) Focus on "she did so with aplomb", she became a respected figure of enduring dignity and fortitude." What aspect(s) of her life do historians consider as heroism? If it is heroic, how many similar heroes are there in the world?

4) Focus on "she became the familiar figure of the matriarchal widow". According to that expression, what happened in British homes and in British people's minds?

5) Focus on "grandmamma of Europe". What impression does it give about Europeans? Was it a true illustration of reality? (find contrasted answers)

6) Focus on the last sentence of the document and say what it tells you about the power of myth-making.

document 5.

What other aspects of Victorian England are more easily forgotten by English people today?


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