Thomas, Chloë, Léane
To develop the notion of “spaces & exchanges”, we are going to talk about tourism as a means of economic and cultural exchanges, with its positive and negative impacts.
Tourism is the fact of travelling for pleasure. Nowadays more and more people have the opportunity to travel abroad.
Over the years, tourism has become essential in the the socio economic progress of nations, particularly in developing countries. It is profitable so it needs to be encouraged but also controlled. Beyond its economic contribution, tourism is also a factor of socialization and exchanges between the local population and tourists.
The question is to know what role tourism plays in economic and cultural exchanges?
In the first place, we will see the economic aspects in India and in Greece.
Then, we will observe the cultural ones. Finally, we are going to explain the relationship between these two types of exchanges.
First, I will talk about Greece. When tourists spend their money in hotels, restaurants, transportations, communications, services or food they have direct impact in the economy of the country.
For example when Greece was struck by a serious crisis, the price value of hotels , restaurants etc ...fell down . So tourism rocketed after this, a lot of people came to Greece for holidays. The economic situation has leveled up since then.
The tourism industry in Greece accounts for approx 16% of GDP. Tourism constitutes one of the most important economic activities in Greece. In 2003, Greece welcomed approximately 14 million tourists (excluding cruises). The major portion (90%) came from Europe and 70% from EU countries. Today, the number of tourists visiting Greece has doubled compared to 2003.
This mass tourism has engendered many negative impacts too. For example tourists can throw their stuff everywhere, polluting the country.
Tourists can also be rude with the local population and treat them like nothing. Plus, this huge economic evolution doesn’t benefit everyone. Indeed, much money goes to foreign investors and not to local investors.
Concerning India, tourism plays an important role in the country’s economy. According to a study by the Worlds Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), the tourism sector should increase by 8.8% over the next 10 years.
It’s the essential sector of the Indian economy, a powerful engine of growth and employment.
This sector employs more than 18 million people and will allow the creation of 25 million employs more. Tourism is India's second largest source of foreign exchange after textiles. It is therefore a major asset for India.
Tourists are going to India because it has many attractions: archeological and historical sites, varied landscapes, traditions and musical, culinary and religious cultures.
Tourists in India are more interested in cultural exchange. Indeed if we visit India it is not to buy clothes of brands that we do not have in our country but to share or learn a different way of living.
Concerning the cultural aspects, we can say that travelling has as many goals as there are tourists. But we can separate the tourist expectations in two categories. Those who want to rest and those who want cultural exchanges while meeting people or doing local activities for example.
The first category of tourists goes on a tour or with friends to spend a so-called "relaxing" holiday. They stay in their hotels or between them, they watch shows in the hotel complex, they take part in group discoveries of the country, organized tours or dinners between tourists but not with local people. This kind of trip is made for tourists to meet tourists of the same country and not to meet local people. This type of trip is completely opposed to tourists visiting India,
who go to discover the children, the people, the Indian food, the way of life, the language... They maintain the cultural exchange.
The other category goes to a country to be in a full immersion. They don’t hesitate to meet the local population, to visit the monuments and eat the local food. To follow with India, most of the tourists going there are in search of a “powerful immersion”.
This can be really helpful for both sides. For the person who has been heard and for the person who listened, it can open his eyes and then live his life differently.
To conclude, tourism plays a major role in the economy and also, maybe, in the mutual understanding of people from different cultures.
(Fériale, Louise, Lydia, Darya)
To illustrate the notion "Spaces & Exchanges", I have decided to speak about the question of transports.Today we can use so many means of transportation. All of them have been explored on this planet, except two: a transatlantic tunnel and a space elevator. The question is to know if these new forms of transportation represent the future or if they are just crazy ideas.
First, you have to know that the idea of a space elevator is not new. Indeed, it dates back to the 60s and 70s. In 1960, Yuri ATSUTANOV, a Russian engineer, wrote an article about a space elevator for the first time. Then in 1975, an American Jerome PEARSON, reinvented the concept, and introduced it to the world spaceflight community.
Nowadays, Japanese researchers have taken the project a step further: they sent a technology demonstrator (a sort of smaller model of the future project) this September 11 2018 on the ISS.
The question is to know if this project is possible, and what the advantages and the drawbacks will be.
First, let me make a brief description of the space elevator.
The space elevator will link Earth and the ISS (International Space Station). The starting point of the elevator will be on a mobile platform in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The elevator would consist of a steel cable with one end attached to the surface and the other end in space. The design would permit vehicles and maybe people to travel along the cable from the surface of the Earth's, directly into space or the ISS.
The space elevator has some advantages; it could boost the development of space tourism. Indeed influential people want to make this space tourism a new business, others want to colonize Mars, and in these two examples the space elevator will be the best solution. It’s also an ecologic alternative to space launchers such as the American space shuttle or the European Ariane because it would be powered by solar energy.
But a space lift will be expensive due to its highly sophisticated material so it will be only for the wealthy people. If there is a problem, (like people blocked in the elevator) it will be very difficult to rescue them.
So now, concerning the transatlantic tunnel, it has been considered since the 19th century. It was first imagined by Jules Verne.
A Few years later the world decided to think about this project more seriously.
Indeed this theoretical tunnel would go from New York to London and back at 500 or 800 km per hour. With this very fast speed the trip should last just 1 hour. It is a real revolution. It should be the world's fastest mode of public transportation. This new project is very expensive, between 88 and 175 billion dollars, some sources say 12 trillion.
The version of Jules Verne’s book describes a fast carriage but it is obviously impossible today. The modern version presents a few different ideas:
Firstly, there is the concept of magnetic levitation: with the help of magnetic fields the train should be in a tube in the air above the ocean. With this technique the train should be called « vactrain » for « vacuum tube train ». The air will be expulsed to permit the train to go at very high speed.
Secondly the submerged floating tunnel is a version of this train but under the water. It should be in the bottom of the ocean deep enough under the sea to dodge the boats and the bad weather. The train would be pulled by 100 000 cables in a steel tube that reduces the atmospheric pressure.
There are other ideas like launching the train like a missile that will take 18 minutes to reach the maximal speed.
There are advantages and drawbacks for this new invention.
To begin with, it would change the life of some people because the trip would be less than an hour long. It would be useful for those who choose to live on one side and work on the other. As there is no contact with the sea, there would be no pollution.
However there are drawbacks too like for example the extreme distances to move materials and of course the cost of this huge project. It would also be inconvenient for ecology, because even if it is clean to use it, it would be very bad for the eco system of the ocean during the construction.
Moreover, if the train is launched like a missile we can have a sensation of discomfort because when the train accelerates we are stuck to our seat, and when it slows down, we go forward for long minutes.
So to conclude the transports of the future have some economic advantages because the space elevator can generate a new business with space tourism and Mars’ colonization and the Atlantic tunnel can develop exchanges between Europe and the USA. There are some disadvantages too, for security and ecologic reasons and because not anyone can afford that.
Bianca, Mika, Illan
The notion spaces and exchanges deals with the interactions between individuals in a certain place. For example, going to a restaurant can illustrate this notion because it is a place where we interact with a lot of different people. I’m going to take you to a special restaurant, which is called Inamo, in London; it is one of the only “interactive” restaurants in the world.
Inamo is a futuristic Asian restaurant, created by Noel Hunwick in 2008. In this place, we can eat sushi, soups, sides and Asian tapas. Both entertaining and practical, the concept of this restaurant is unique in London because they have interactive tables with a touch pad. With the touch table, the clients can order the food directly on the table. Besides, there is a live chef-cam which shows the kitchen and the food preparation. It’s possible to discover the neighborhood by a map of the area; there are also programs of different shows in London. At the end of the meal, the bill can be requested directly on the table too.
First, I will explain why there are a lot of advantages in this restaurant.
The menu is displayed on the table thanks to a projector. There is a photo of the dish displayed in real size in a virtual plate. The service is fast. Besides, children who are often impatient are happy to play games on the tables. When we eat at Inamo Restaurant the dishes are varied, and the majority of people who have eaten there think that the food was very good.
But what the clients-especially tourists- like the most is that it is very innovative and it is a good concept because of the possibility to visit the city of London and the local neighbourhood directly on the table with maps of the area and London. Moreover, the live chef-cam allows clients to see the chef organization, and the food preparation which ensures that the food is fresh. The programs of shows in London, available with the touch table, could be interesting for all the customers.
Given that the bill can be asked directly on the table, it spares people from waiting for the waiters.
There are also advantages for the staff. Thanks to the digital table, they have less work and they don’t have to take the orders of the clients. They don’t have to present the bill too. In fact, the animations projected to customers, put you in touch with the waiters and customers in a virtual relation.
For the boss, the advantage seems most of all economic. He needs to employ fewer waiters because they are not indispensable to the system of the restaurant. The question is to know if this unique restaurant, very costly for all the technical equipment, which means the projectors, the operating functions of the table, the maintenance... can be profitable simply because of the originality of its profile. The founders of the restaurant made a lot of investments as the connected tables are very expensive, so a popular success is indispensable.
In fact we can point some drawbacks of this kind of restaurant.
For the clients, even though food is good, not all of them are happy with the high prices and the price value is barely average (juste moyenne). For example, the meal costs from 15 euros to 25 euros and the dessert costs from 9 to 12 euros. Besides, some clients may not like the fact that the connected tables replace the relationship with the waiters. Some people can also find that interactive games in a restaurant encourage individualism and limit human contact.
There are also drawbacks for the waiters and the cooks who are under permanent surveillance and forced to have a good behaviour due to the cameras. Besides, with the “virtual” system, some waiters can lose the social relationship with clients.
For the boss, we can imagine that if one day the system with the table is not working, the restaurant will not work anymore, because of the limited number of waiters to replace the machines.
In conclusion, one might wonder if restoration and catering are sectors where the machine must replace man…
(Mathilde, Emma, Estelle, Oscar).
INTRO. The notion "Spaces and exchanges" is double. First, it deals with the geographical and virtual areas occupied by people and by societies, for example a national territory or a web site. Secondly, it refers to the interactions between all these different entities, people or societies. We are going to talk about tourism as a means of economic and cultural exchanges, with its positive and negative impacts.
I) Culturally, the question today is to determine whether the negative impacts of tourism on culture are more important than the benefits. It is really hard to say if tourism protects a local culture more than it destroys it.
The money made with tourism helps preserve and conserve cultural heritage, boosts cultural pride, customs & traditions. It is also a factor of cultural sharing and learning from tourist to native and vice versa.
We read on some blogs that after a trip, people’s minds have changed. Their mentalities are different; the way they think is different because of the native people they met. Mentalities are different in every country. Plus, the tourists discovered new cultures, so it’s very rewarding for them and also for the natives when they talk together. Tourists can discover new dishes for example. The natives are proud of their heritage.
Plus, tourism can create new jobs, especially in the catering industry.
But tourism has some negative impacts; the worst aspect is mass tourism.
Mass tourism is when a lot of people go to the same place at the same time and for example the beach is so full that you can’t even walk or swim as you want. People, more often families, choose this solution because it’s cheap and easy because many activities are included.
Tourism can also provoke pollution in the sea by plastic bottles for example.
Too many tourists can have a negative impact on the quality of life. This phenomenon is known as overtourism. For example, the slopes of Mount Everest are littered and, in Iceland, tourists far outnumber the resident population. In some countries, there is not enough fresh water because of hotels, swimming pools, golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. This is obviously very bad for the local environment and the local population. In these conditions, cultural exchanges are very bad.
II- Economically, revenue generated through tourism offers a chance for a local economy to continue to exist as a tourist destination by using the funds in multiple areas, it’s a sort of virtuous circle.
First, tourism is a remarkable engine of job creation and monetary development and monetary improvement. Jobs for tourism can include everything from the souvenir shop clerk to the bartender, to the captain of a tour boat. For many developing countries, tourism is already their economy and a major source of income and employment.
For example, tourism accounts for about 10% of Thailand's GDP. There is sustainable growth for jobs in the tourism industry. Travel and tourism generate 10% of jobs worldwide, so it is a tool against poverty.
Secondly, for many countries, tourism is considered an essential instrument of regional development as it stimulates new economic activities. The development of tourism means building hotels and restaurants, new roads, creating public transports infrastructures, maybe an international airport, all that represents a very important indirect consequence on the development of the local economy.
Sometimes however, a country can be the victim of its own touristic attractiveness.
Unexpected and unpredictable events such as terrorism, political unrest and natural disasters can cause damage in a region, as the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004. The more a destination is dependent on tourism, the more the impact will be felt and the longer the recovery will take. Obviously rich countries are more able to profit from tourism than poor ones.
To conclude, tourism is a good means of economic and cultural exchanges even though it has some disadvantages if the tourists behave in a disrespectful way and if a country is too dependent on tourism alone.
French people find that the French job market is becoming less and less accessible because it's restricted by too many laws and regulations. You can find work only if you know important people or have high degrees. It counts more than your personal attitude.
In France, if you haven't gone to a prestigious school, you can't have a great job. In England, it's different, only the interview and your personal abilities matters.
In the conclusion of his article, the journalist says that even if it’s more difficult to find work in France, the standard of living is better in France than in Great Britain. For example, he explains that British retired people prefer to leave Britain to settle down in France because first of all the living conditions are more pleasant and secondly housing is cheaper in France.
In my opinion, there are many factors explaining that life in France is “sweeter” than in GB, that the quality of life remains better in France. Indeed, if we look at salaries, the minimum wages (= salaries) are higher in France than in Britain. Lots of retired people move to France after their career is over since they receive their pension from England and the value of the pound is higher than the value of the euro, so it gives them more purchasing power (pouvoir d’achat). Finally, the weather in France is better. It often rains in Britain whereas it's sunny most of the year in the south of France, not to mention that French food is famous around the world! Finally, health care (soins de santé) is more affordable (abordable) in France.
Maïda, Jade, Elsa & Boris. Posted by Boris.
COMPREHENSION ORALE: Ecoutez ces vidéos trois fois chacune maximum et rédigez un compte rendu en français. Pour mercredi 17/10.
Advertising Techniques : Visual Merchandising Tips
Topic activité n°3
Other than job immobility, there can be various factors explaining the “work deficit” evoked by economists.
Unlike American people, the Europeans may be afraid of a short term job offer, they prefer the stability of long-term contracts, even if they must stay unemployed a little longer.
Moreover, we can imagine that the fact that most people aren’t able to practice the jobs offered can be a factor of work deficit: for example in the hospitals, there aren't as many surgeons as needed. It is also possible to imagine the contrary, that is to say some people might be overqualified for some jobs.
Finally, there are jobs that of course most people don't want to do like dustman or truck drivers who are needed because they deliver big merchandises for companies, and people refuse because it’s too hard.
Yanis, Benjamin, Mohamed, Marie. Posted by Yanis.
Correction DS du 3/10
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En l'absence de communication de la part du groupe concerné et en raison de l'approche du DS (jeudi 11 octobre), j'ai pris l'initiative de publier un corrigé de l'activité n°3, hors topic en gras. Je publierai votre travail sur le topic après l'avoir reçu...
Je rappelle que le contrôle ne portera que sur le compte-rendu du texte, non pas sur les "topics".
According to experts, the lack of job mobility which characterizes European unemployed people is one of the most important obstacles against the economic performance of the continent. At the IMF, the International Monetary Fund, an institution which helps countries in economic difficulties in exchange for profound reforms, they say that this immobility creates a work deficit, that is to say some regions are ready to offer a lot of jobs but in parallel, nobody is ready to move to these regions and to take the offers.
The journalist concludes the article with a few remarks on Silicon Valley. It’s a region in California characterized by the concentration of Research and Development laboratories, high-tech firms such as Google or Microsoft, and prestigious universities like Stanford. In Silicon Valley, people always change jobs; they don’t stay in the same company for a very long time. For the journalist, this constant rotation of employees is the key factor to explain the economic dynamism of the region.
RAPPEL DS LUNDI 8/10 SUR "THE DIFFICULT EXCHANGES BETWEEN SAM & JOHN"
Sam's long term project is to build his own international travel agency in New York City, he wants to be a wealthy business man.
This situation evokes a well-known myth, The American Dream. This myth is about succeeding in America and climbing the social ladder all the way to the top even if you start from scratch, from rags to riches.
We can see in the text that John is pessimistic about Sam's project. In fact, on line 6 John says Sam is "wearing a fatter man's clothes" it could mean Sam is wearing big clothes to reflect his big dream, his big project, as if implicitly, both his clothes and dreams might be too big for him. It could also mean that Sam is a poor guy who can’t afford to buy fitting clothes. Moreover, John uses irony on line 25 when he says that Sam explains his big project "in seconds". It's ironic because if it is his dream and if it is a serious business plan, it should have taken him hours to explain it. Besides, on lines 13-14, John is being sarcastic because he doesn't think Sam Zokar is an interesting and important person as he claims to be. He is just ridiculous. Finally, on lines 39-40, John is disdainful towards Sam because he thinks that Sam is just “another” immigrant among millions of others who wants to live The American Dream.
Indeed, we can say that Sam is an optimist whereas John is quite pessimistic. That's why the communication between them is difficult. They have opposite states of mind, they could never agree, it’s impossible for them to find common ground .This poor communication is shown by the fact that Sam is the only one (who is) speaking in the text. We only have John's point of view in the narrative part. Indeed at first sight the text looks like a dialogue but John only speaks to the readers, as if he had created a distance between him and Sam.
If this story was an allegory, Sam would represent hope and John would embody cold pessimism. There is a distance between them because Sam could also represent the poor immigrant guy from Africa who wants to succeed in America, whereas John could represent the rich one, who comes from London. To a degree, they also embody rich and poor countries who can never find solid agreements in terms of international trade negotiations.
Sarah, Inès & Aminata. Posted by Sarah.