IV) Beauty, femininity, frailty, love (PERSONAL CORRECTION)
In the first text, we can clearly see that the husband doesn't expect anything from his wife except her unconditional love, a charming face and the fact that she obeys him no matter what. These three obligations are considered as a “payment” of the wife's “debt” to her husband for the material and financial protection he gives her. She says this debt is "too little", it means the wife will never be able to repay her husband, the debt is forever, and it keeps her in a position of permanent inferiority and permanent guilt.
In the second text, Marvin acts more like a gentleman. Indeed, he's more respectful he quits swearing and fighting but he offers her a flower which is the symbol of beauty but it is also a sign of fragility because a flower's beauty is fragile, it doesn't last. In the same vein, Marvin has been in love with her for a long time, plus, he came to her after two years; it means he doesn't want to rush her, he believes she is too delicate and fragile to do things quickly, she must like things to go slowly. Another example of her frailty is when he “trains himself to give his chair to a lady”, as if a woman was not strong enough to stand on her feet!! A fragile woman is easy to manipulate because she doesn't really believe in herself, in her convictions so a man can put ideas in her head to make her do whatever he wants.
In reality, her attitude is poles apart with the attitude recommended in the first text; she doesn't reflect the traditional feminine image at all. Miss Amelia doesn't pay attention to her husband she ignores him completely. More importantly, she eats more than him, she kicks doors, and she smokes her father's pipe when she needs to calm down whereas with her mother's wedding dress, during the ceremony, she lost patience, not to mention that the dress was “12 inches too short”, it's ugly and ridiculous. Obviously, her physical appearance and femininity are the least of her concerns. She feels more relaxed with her father’s pipe than with her mother’s dress!
Thus, there is no clear evolution of the way women are seen in society, men's expectations did not really change in 400 years but there is a clear change in the way some women behave, like Amelia for example. Indeed, in Shakespeare's play, the wife is supposed to worry only about her love for her husband and for her own delicate appearance in his eyes, in exchange for his offer of material protection. However, in the second text, even though Marvin is still a little bit in that mind set, Miss Amelia is more independent and she isn't represented as fragile.
Notion 3, Locations and Forms of Power.
The power of Language, the Power of Words.
I) The power of divine language, documents 1 & 2.
God need only say the word, and it is. By naming things, God makes them appear; that is how he created light and the sky. This shows us that divine language is the ultimate form of power. We can say that God is the magician of words, as things appear like magic when he decides to utter their name. Naming is creating, thus, we can assume that nothing can be considered real if it does not possess a name, it does not exist.
Nowadays, when a new cardinal is needed in the Vatican, the Pope “creates” one. It is as if he were endowed with God’s power to creating just by naming, as if he were a physical representation of God on Earth. Meanwhile, when a new Prime Minister is needed in Britain, the queen “appoints” the person she finds fittest for the job. She does not possess the power to “create” a Prime Minister, as she is not able to simply name one into existence.
“Verbum Incarnatum” is another way to refer to the Pope that is not often encountered. It is a Latin expression meaning “incarnation of the word”. The Pope is called that because he is supposed to be not only the messenger of God on earth, but also his physical representation. Since God is also said to be Word itself, the Pope is considered the incarnation of the power of divine language.
RAPPEL DES DOCUMENTS, CLIQUEZ CI-DESSOUS (Doc 3 en prime)
A brief summary of Romeo and Juliet.
This tragedy by Shakespeare was written around 1595. The action takes place in Italy, in Verona during the Renaissance. The story is about two rival families, the Montagues and the Capulets. Their fights create so much violence in the streets of Verona that the Prince declares that acts of violence will now be punished by death. When Romeo and Juliet fall in love they get married in secret. Then, her cousin Tybalt fights Romeo and his friend Mercutio, who is killed. Romeo then kills Tybalt and must prepare to escape from Verona. Juliet is heart-broken, not to mention that she must marry another man, a count. Romeo and Juliet spend their last night together and Romeo escapes, then Juliet thinks and finds a plan: she will drink a special preparation which is going to fake her death. So she will not get married to the count and Romeo will come back for her. The problem is that Romeo is not informed in time. For him, Juliet is really dead thus he drinks poison and dies next to Juliet. When she wakes up from her fake death, she sees him and stabs herself.
Written by Aminata, with the help of the class.
Life and Reign of Queen Elizabeth II:
0.20 Good morning again, Robin, she is a legendarily private woman, but over the years she has shown a remarkable ability to adapt, to show more emotion in public, when the country needs it, after Princess Diana’s death for example. We discovered that maybe because at heart, she is not as aloof as she seems. She is famously stoic and reserved, iconographic in her matching coats and hats, the epitome of absolute duty to country. But there’s another side to the 81 year-old monarch and grandmother, one the public rarely sees and it might surprise. She is very funny, she has got a very, very quick wit, and a dry sense of humor, and of course she’s a fantastic mimic. From the start in fact, she was a humor-filled child, here, the 10-year old princess just learned she would one day become queen; the smile is shy but the wave distinctly playful. And from that point on, the public eye was trained on young Elizabeth who relished her close family life with long talks with her father King George VI. She became known for her beauty and her dancing, her spontaneous plays put on for friends and family and the freewheeling games at sea. Her life was quite carefree when she was a young princess in her teens, they would often go to private houses around Great Britain owned by aristocrat friends of theirs and party till the dawn, don’t be fooled into thinking the queen was leading a sort of boring existence. (1.50)
The Secret Diary of Queen Victoria... aged 13
(0.08) We know her as the great Queen; Victoria is the monarch who reigned the longest though her great, great granddaughter Elizabeth II is fast closing on that record. But Victoria wasn’t always a grand old lady. Her life as a young princess has even been made into a film, and now her earliest known diaries are being put on public display. It’s 1832, she is 13 years old and she’s traveling by horse and carriage through the industrial midlands it’s the first time she has seen anything like it and here the princess expresses her shock and awe. She writes “the grass is quite blasted and black, the country continues black, engines flaming, coals in abundance, everywhere smoking and burning.” Victoria wasn’t allowed to have friends, her paper dolls are relics of a lonely childhood. This new exhibition at Windsor Castle features other Kings and queens. Here is the signature of Elizabeth I in her accounts book, and we hear from Elizabeth II long before she is queen. I love this one, it was written by the current queen when she was 11 year-old princess Elizabeth at the coronation of her father and it obviously went on a bit. In neat handwriting she remembers at the end, the service got rather boring…(1.39)
Rappel DS CE le 19/1 et annonce DS CO le 26/1.
Last 6 reasons in the document "THE GENDER WAGE GAP EXPLAINED IN 2 MINUTES"
N°6, numerous studies have found women are less likely to negotiate a higher salary than men and less likely to leave their jobs to find higher-paying work. N°7, men commute further to work than women. In the UK, 42% of men travel more than 6 miles to work compared to 30% of women. N°8, men make up most of the workers in dangerous jobs and 97% of employees who die at work are men. You never hear a feminist demanding more women work in construction, deep-sea fishing, all of which pay better than jobs like teaching and nursing which are dominated by women. N°9, a recent report from Concept Research Corp commissioned by the Obama administration concludes the wage gap should not be used as a basis to justify corrective action, the differences in role wages may be entirely the results of individual choices made by both male and female workers. The European Commission comes to a similar conclusion. N° 10, men are just totally better, am I right?
Gender inequality and the pay gap
Who is affected by gender inequality in the workplace? It’s not just women. Equal amounts of both sexes in the UK tell us that they have experienced some form of gender inequality at work. Our survey also uncovered that over a third of men and almost half of women say they did not feel able to raise their concerns over gender inequality with their employer. In fact, 10% had left a position due to the issue. The top three forms are wage inequality, verbal harassment and unfair promotion blocking. Unsurprisingly, wage inequality affects more women. On average, how much more do you think working men earn than women? Our survey suggests no one really knows. In reality, in the UK today, the pay gap among fulltime working men and women is at 9.4% and this number rockets to 19% when combined with part-time rolls. So, should the government be doing more to try and close the gender pay gap? 65% of men and 81% of women think they should. So what’s actually being done? This year, a new government scheme was meant to launch by which large companies would have to publicly announce the pay levels between male and female staffs. But the initiative has now been postponed to 2018. Regardless, our survey asks whether this scheme would go far enough to recalibrate wage inequality between the sexes. Over a quarter of those we surveyed don’t think it will. What’s your experience of gender inequality in the workplace? STOP 1’30”
MMA is the most pro-women sport in the world.
“You’ve also said that MMA is the most pro-women sport in the world.”
“Why? Why are so convicted to that?”
“Why? Because, for the first time ever, there’s no distinction between men and women in a sport. There’s WNBA, there’s’ women’s tennis, there’s all these “Ws” everywhere and just a few months ago, women were introduced into the octagon for the first time, just as bantamweights. There is no need to put the “women” in front because they don’t say “men’s bantamweight division, why would they have to say women’s? It’s the first sport in the world to completely eradicate the separation and so, when the women are introduced, and their titles, I’m the UFC bantamweight champion, and I’m not the UFC women’s bantamweight champion because the guys aren’t the UFC men’s champions so they totally got rid of it and it’s the only sport in the world to do that.”
“They talk about “separate but equal” but you know, having even mentioned the Floyd Mayweather fight, they walk away with hundreds of millions of dollars at stake, you being at the height of your sport maybe make a million dollars at most per fight, does that anger you and what can we do to change that?”
“I don’t like to talk about exactly how much money I make but I’m extremely comfortable and happy.
"Shakespeare moves to London"
We don’t quite know what brought him to London but by the end of the 1580s he has arrived in London and he begins his career as an actor. This is really important because it’s the thing that sets him apart from the other dramatists of the time , he arrives in London at the time when the theatre is really taking off, this is the first age of professional theatre, there are designated theatre buildings for the first time and a bunch of very clever young Oxbridge-educated dramatists, Christopher Marlowe, at the head of them, producing very exciting plays. So Sh. starts acting and then he seems to get the role of sort of revising old plays, reworking old plays and found that he was better at that than he was at the acting. So, by the time you get to the mid 1590s, he is established with one group of actors, under the patronage of the Lord Chamberlain as essentially their in-house dramatist, it would have been his job to write two or three new plays a year. He seems to have gone on acting though probably in small parts. One imagines he would have played a part in directing the plays and getting ready for performance both on the public stage of the theatres, from 1599 at their theatre on the south bank, The Globe, but also, crucially, the court performances because acting was still not a very respectable profession at the time.
Suite, de 2.53 à 4.17:
Actors were regarded as little less than vagabonds, and the city authorities were very against actors, which is why the theatres had to be built across the Thames, outside the jurisdiction of the city authorities. But the Court, the Queen, really loved the players because they wanted entertainment on hand for the visits of ambassadors and dignitaries, for festival occasions so there is a sense in which all the public performances were almost officially regarded like being rehearsals for the court performances, which were all important. Shakespeare’s plays were very, very successful, so by the end of the 1590s, he has actually made further bit of money from his work, he is probably the very first writer in England to make serious money out of his work. And the way he did that was by becoming a shareholder in the acting company and getting a percentage of the box office. Other dramatists relied on piece work, on being paid a few shillings by the theatre proprietor. It was very cunning of Shakespeare to get a percentage of the profits. That meant by the end of the 1590s, he could buy the second largest house in Stratford upon Avon, he bought it from a man who had run into financial trouble, so he got it at a very good price.
Jonathan Bate on Shakespeare - Part 3
0.09 Shakespeare’s dramas were extraordinarily mixed in style. He would have learnt at school that in the classical tradition, tragedy and comedy had to be kept apart, verse and prose had to be kept apart, noble characters –lords and dukes and rulers- were in one kind of play, ordinary people, working people, people getting married, shopkeepers, servants were in another kind of play. But Sh mixed them all up, and the reason why he did that, is that he knew that he was writing for several audiences at once. So he would put in things that would appeal to the Court, when there was a command performance at Court, but also things that would appeal to the general public. And within the general public, there were several different strands to the audience so, you could get in to stand at the Globe for just a penny, and you would stand in the so-called pit, around the stage. But then, you could pay more, and get a seat in the galleries, the covered galleries, and there’s a very strong sense that different bits of the play would have appealed to different segments of the audience. One the key audiences were the ones who would pay a little bit more and who would go to the so-called smaller, private theatres.1.29
Part 3, teacher's correction.
Shakespeare touches more than theatre-lovers.
In a short video we learnt that according to some linguists, there are 1,700 words used in modern English that were invented by Shakespeare, for example, such expressions as "fair play" or "gossip" appeared for the first time in his works. So when somebody says these words, they are directly influenced by Shakespeare, they speak like him but also, consciously or not, they think like him. One doesn't have to be a specialist of Shakespeare.
The influence of Shakespeare touches not only literature, it touches all the facets of modern global culture in so far as (in the sense that) it's a worldwide influence.
His plays have been adapted by the greatest film makers and actors like Orson Welles, Or Leonardo Di Caprio, by the greatest classical composers such as Verdi or Tchaikovsky or Berlioz, by some rock stars like Lou Reed, even by the Disney Studios with the Lion King, a re-writing of Hamlet. More surprising, all his plays can be found in their manga version and some of them, like "A Midsummer Night's Dream" for instance, are used in commercials / ads for television. He touches every generation, young and old, and every social category, from the most brilliant erudite or scholars to the people with an average or lower education. Honestly, it's hard to find an author with the same universal influence.
The first two back-covers (1969 and 2000) present Gatsby’s parties as being “glittering” and seemingly endless”. The glitter evokes the perfection of a lavish, dream-like life but as the famous proverb goes, all that glitters is not gold, meaning that this kind of existence is just an illusion, or a “shimmering surface”, as the 2011 edition says. There may be nothing really sparkling behind the “façade”. In the same way, the endless party is a bit of a myth, it’s the party many people dream of, but it just doesn’t exist, except maybe in Gatsby’s fantasy world.
On the back-cover of the 2000 edition, Gatsby is described as a « young, handsome and fabulously rich ». He is the archetype of the Prince Charming who is going to save Daisy. Indeed, if we look closer to the word « fabulous » it is repeated three times, so it’s very important. Interestingly, the word comes from Latin 'fabula' which means a supernatural story from a legend. Consequently, we can deduce that it's impossible to be that rich, except in a myth, as if his wealth had no limit in terms of time and quantity.
The last document, the 2011 back-cover, insists on the fact that Gatsby has accumulated all his wealth with only one thing in mind, namely to reconquer Daisy Fay. Even though the concept of massive fortune doesn’t necessarily evoke romanticism at first sight, the fact that Gatsby’s sole motivation is love and not greed makes him a true romantic hero, the typical Prince Charming as we said before. He loves Daisy, he makes lots of money and he tries to use it to save her from Tom who has incredible amounts of money too, but who doesn’t really care for his wife and doesn’t know the first thing about passion and romance.
The other interesting idea in this back-cover is that they explain only “few people” could recognize Gatsby if they saw him. To a degree, Gatsby is like those super-heroes who can’t be identified without their mask or their suit, his mask and suit being represented by his fortune. Gatsby is a billionaire super-hero who hides his true identity and all his secrets behind his fortune but one might say that he is the only super-hero who fails in the end.
CONCLUSION “The Idea of Progress, texts 1 & 2”
Between Shakespeare’s time and the 1950’s progress has been made concerning the situation of women in our society.
Text two shows that a woman can be powerful and independent of her husband. This being said, Amelia and Marvin’s marriage doesn’t last longer than 10 days. Something isn’t right. We can suppose they don’t match or she’s not made for marriage. The narrator’s choice to keep her name unchanged reveals that this marriage has no effect at all on her social identity.
Most important, she’s masculine, she doesn’t care for love, grace and for her own beauty.
So we can wonder if power is something exclusively masculine, if a woman of character is necessarily masculine and ugly and if it is impossible to combine femininity and authority.
The men who read the book in the 1950’s must have thought that such women were impossible to control, to tame, to dominate, in other words that they were absolutely terrifying.
Charlotte & Xavier
Listening Comprehension: "THE GENDER WAGE GAP EXPLAINED IN 2 MINUTES"
Part 1 (reasons 1 to 5):
Starts at 0’13’’. The gender wage gap is the relative difference in average gross earnings of men and women. It’s calculated by taking the total earnings of men and women and comparing them. It’s an aggregate figure. The gap is quoted as women earning 77 cents to a man’s dollar, which is often presented as sexism or oppression of women. But why the disparity between what men and women earn? Here are the top 10 reasons for the wage gap explained in two minutes. N°1, according to the Australian government, the average full-time working male works 3.8 hours per week more than the average full-time working female. In the UK, men work 4 hours more than women per week, on average. N°2, men are more likely to major in engineering and computer science, women are more likely to major in education and social sciences which lead to lower-earning jobs. Numerous sources confirm this, including Forbes. N°3, women are more likely to work in the public sector than men. According to the Political Economy Research Institute in the University of Massachusetts, the public sector pays one fifth less on average than jobs in the private sector. N°4, men work more overtime than women. According to a study published in the American Sociologist Review, 19% of men versus 7% of women work more than 50 hours a week. N°5, 43% of working women leave their jobs to start families, after which only 40% of these women return to full-time work.
Sonnet 18, Part 2.
1) Verse nine is the rest of the idea begun in verse 4 but continued in an opposite direction because the human friend of the poet is elevated as if she/he was a divinity. He or she becomes eternally beautiful.
In verse five “the eye of heaven” refers to the sun. The first imperfection of the sun is that it shines “too hot” and burns our skins and the second is that sometimes sunlight is too weak because of clouds, he also says that his friend is better than summer beauty because his or her beauty doesn't rust as “gold”, the perfect metal.
The poet doesn't give any physical description and doesn't mention the name of his friend maybe to be universal and to touch everybody.
The final couplet, the conclusion of the sonnet, explains that the friend's beauty will live as long as “this” poem can live.
Generally, who do we write love poems for? We write for the person that we love but in this case there is no name, no physical description. It's written for everybody and particularly for people like you and me, people who read the poem. All things considered, this poem glorifies not only human beauty but its own beauty, its own ability to make beauty eternal. It’s the meeting between a poet’s art and his readers.
Verse twelve refers to the lines of the poem, but they can also be the lines of his friend's face.
Verse seven and eight mean that every beautiful person will one day lose his or her beauty because of illness (“chance”) or age.
In “Happy the Man”, Dryden evokes “the joys” he has “possessed” and which cannot be destroyed “in spite of fate” and here Shakespeare makes beauty an eternal “possession”. Concerning the reference to death, in “Happy the Man” the poet says death is not an issue if you have had happy moments in your life whereas Shakespeare says that death doesn’t really kill people’s beauty when this beauty is glorified in poetry.
Sophie, with Aminata and Yasmine.
DS SONNET 18 JEUDI 18